April 20, 2022 5:07 amUncategorized
On 15 November 2018, one day after the british government cabinet presented and supported the agreement, several members of the government resigned, including Dominic Raab, Secretary of State for Leaving the European Union.  The BRITISH Parliament passes a law obliging the BRITISH government to request a delay to Brexit if there is no agreement with the EU by 19 October 2019. The Northern Ireland Protocol, known as the “Irish backstop”, was an annex to the November 2018 draft agreement that outlined provisions to prevent a hard border in Ireland after the United Kingdom`s withdrawal from the European Union. The Protocol contains a provision on a safety net to deal with circumstances in which other satisfactory arrangements have yet to enter into force at the end of the transition period. This project has been replaced by a new protocol which will be described below. 3 December 2018 – British Prime Minister May and EU-27 political leaders have approved the draft Withdrawal Agreement, which aims to end the UK`s accession to the EU on 29 March 2019. They also expressed their support for the Political Declaration on the framework for the future relationship between the UK and the EU-27, including trade, which will apply after the end of a transition period, but no later than December 2022. 23 January 2020 – Now that the UK government has a majority in Parliament to pass the EU Withdrawal Act before the invocation of Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union on 31 January 2020. Expires in January 2020, the threat of the UK leaving the EU without a new trade deal (a no-deal outcome) is no longer imminent. However, it cannot be completely ignored. The 2019 revisions also adapted elements of the Political Declaration by replacing the word “appropriate” with “appropriate” in relation to labour standards. According to Sam Lowe, Trade Fellow at the Centre for European Reform, the change excludes labour standards from dispute resolution mechanisms.  In addition, the level playing field mechanism has moved from the legally binding Withdrawal Agreement to the Political Declaration and the line in the Political Declaration that “the UK will consider aligning itself with EU legislation in relevant areas” has been deleted.
 The 599-page Withdrawal Agreement covers the following main areas The UK triggers Article 50. This means that negotiations on the UK`s exit from the EU can begin. The EU and the UK have two years to reach an agreement. The agreement covers issues such as money, civil rights, border regulations and dispute settlement. It also includes a transition period and an overview of the future relationship between the UK and the EU. It was published on 14 November 2018 and was the result of the Brexit negotiations. The agreement was approved by the heads of state and government of the remaining 27 EU countries and the British government of Prime Minister Theresa May, but met with resistance in the British Parliament, whose approval was required for ratification. The consent of the European Parliament would also have been required. On 15 January 2019, the House of Commons rejected the Withdrawal Agreement by 432 votes to 202.  The House of Commons again rejected the agreement on March 12, 2019 by 391 votes to 242 and rejected it a third time on March 29, 2019 by 344 votes to 286. On October 22, 2019, the revised withdrawal agreement negotiated by Boris Johnson`s government took the first step in Parliament, but Johnson suspended the legislative process when the accelerated approval program failed to find the necessary support, announcing his intention to call a general election.
 On 23 January 2020, Parliament ratified the agreement by adopting the Withdrawal Agreement Act; On 29 January 2020, the European Parliament gave its consent to the Withdrawal Agreement. It was then finalised by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020. The UK was due to leave the EU by 31 October 2019, but the UK Parliament voted to force the government to ask for an extension of the deadline and also delayed the vote on the new deal. Boris Johnson then called for a general election. In the December 12 election, the third general election in less than five years, Johnson`s Conservative Party won a large majority of 364 seats in the House of Commons out of 650 seats. He managed to do so, although he won only 42% of the vote, his opponents being divided between several parties. United Kingdom nationals and Union citizens, their family members who are united Kingdom nationals or Union citizens and family members who are neither retain the right to reside in the host Member State (Article 13). The host Member State may not restrict or make dependent dependants with a view to obtaining, maintaining or losing rights of residence (Article 13).
Persons with valid documents do not need entry and exit visas or equivalent formalities and are allowed to leave or enter the host country in a simple manner (art. 14). In the event that the host Member State requires that `family members who join the Union citizen or the United Kingdom national at the end of the transition period obtain an entry visa`, the host Member State is required to issue the necessary visas free of charge in the appropriate institutions under an accelerated procedure (Article 14). The agreement also deals with the issuance of permanent residence permits during and after the transition period and their restrictions. In addition, it clarifies the rights of employees and the self-employed and provides for the recognition and identification of professional qualifications. An agreement reached in December 2017 resolved this long-standing sticking point, which threatened to drive the negotiations to a complete failure. Barnier`s team launched the first salvo in May 2017 with the publication of a document detailing the approximately 70 entities it would take into account when compiling the invoice. The Financial Times estimated that the gross amount requested would be €100 billion; minus some British assets, the final bill would be “in the order of 55 to 75 billion euros”.
The White Paper recognises that a customs agreement without borders with the EU – an agreement that has allowed the UK to negotiate free trade agreements with third countries – is “broader than any other existing agreement between the EU and a third country”. However, there could be no true economic partnership if the future relationship did not go beyond trade issues. The European Union and the United Kingdom have therefore also agreed on the framework for future cooperation in many other areas: services, professional qualifications, public procurement, environmental and energy issues, air, maritime and rail freight transport, as well as rules on social security and research and development. Under the agreement, the UK will continue to participate in a range of EU programmes. The British Parliament approved the draft agreement at the time by passing the European Union (Withdrawal Agreement) Act 2020 on 23 January 2020. Following the signing of the agreement, the United Kingdom Government adopted a decision on 29 September. In January 2020, the instrument of ratification of the UK agreement was published and deposited.   The agreement was ratified by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020, after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament on 29 January 2020. The withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the Union entered into force on 31 January 2020 at 11 .m GMT, and on that date the Withdrawal Agreement under Article 185 entered into force. Among other things, the Trade and Cooperation Agreement creates a broad economic partnership. Essentially, it is a free trade agreement that contains no tariffs or quotas and thus avoids significant barriers to trade.